Our goal is to get the learner to true mastery – being accurate, being fast, and with self-assessed “high” confidence.

There is a “cost” associated with the confidence selection which rewards them by moving up a mastery level when they are confident and proficient, or dropping them down if they are confident and not proficient.

By proficiency, we are referring not just to accuracy, but also whether the learner responded within a certain duration and other signals.

This is how a learner’s mastery level (ML) is affected by the combination of their proficiency and confidence: